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All disabled people should have the opportunity to live full lives independently and autonomously, to have the same opportunities in employment and education and to make decisions for themselves. For every European state and its society, to enhance their participation in political and cultural life, to information and communication, to make accessibility on the built environment, transport and volunteering a priority, should be the main focus.

 

For all this to happen, disabled people need support and equality. Equality comes with inclusion. Inclusion comes with accessibility. And accessibility derives from infrastructure and education.

As technology advances and human rights make their way into people’s lives, what people with disability need is not only understanding but strategies that will finally lead to inclusion for all.

 

Disability is a term which still does not have a specific definition. It is rather examined under different approaches, since it covers many situations that are not only medical, but also social and legal.

Medical approach

According to the Cambridge Dictionary3

-disability is an illness, injury, or condition that makes it difficult for someone to do the things that other people do: a physical/learning disability.

Social Approach

According to the social model of disability, disability is seen not through the medical aspect, but through the social restrictions an impairment may cause, such as social exclusion, marginalization, negative attitudes and lack of infrastructures.

Legal Approach

From a legal point of view, a disability affecting a person’s will or judgment (such as mental illnesses) could possibly lead to the declaration, by virtue of court decision, of their legal incapacity and/or legal disqualification, further resulting in their inability to validly make decisions on their own, enter into binding agreements or write their own will.

Thus, we can say that:

Disability is the result of the combination of an impairment (physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional, developmental, or one consisting of more of the above) and the social restrictions (marginalization, limitation in participation of everyday activities, negative attitude towards the disabled and legal incapacity) that individuals face because of it.




·   Council Directive 2000/78/EC12of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation.

 

· Council Decision 2010/48/EC13 of 26 November of 2009 regarding the conclusion, by the European Community, of the United Nations Convention on the rights of Persons with Disabilities.

European Strategies

DISABILITY ACTION PLAN 2004-2010

Following the European Year of People with Disabilities, European Commission decided to take action and propose an action plan that will recognize and protect the rights of people with disabilities.

The DAP had three main objectives19:

 

·   to implement fully the Directive 2000/78/EC on equal treatment in employment and occupation.

 

·    to reinforce mainstreaming of disability issues in the relevant Community policies.

·         to improve accessibility for all.

 

COUNCIL OF EUROPE ACTION PLAN 2006-201520

In April 2006, European Council adopted an Action Plan that contains 15 key action lines:

 

3.1.  Action Line No.1: Participation in political and public life

3.2.  Action line No. 2: Participation in cultural life

3.3.  Action line No. 3: Information and communication

3.4.  Action line No. 4: Education

3.5.  Action line No. 5: Employment, vocational guidance and training

3.6.  Action line No. 6: The built environment

3.7.  Action line No. 7: Transport

3.8.  Action line No. 8: Community living

3.9.  Action line No. 9: Health care

3.10.  Action line No. 10: Rehabilitation

3.11.  Action line No. 11: Social protection

3.12.  Action line No. 12: Legal protection

3.13.  Action line No. 13: Protection against violence and abuse

3.14.  Action line No. 14: Research and development

3.15.  Action line No. 15: Awareness raising

EUROPEAN DISABILITY STRATEGY 2010-202021

Following DAP, Europe adopted a new strategy on November 15th, 2010. The European Disability Strategy 2010-2020 promotes that persons with disabilities have the right to participate fully and equally in society and economy. Denial of equal opportunities is a breach of human rights.

Its objectives are pursued by actions in eight priority areas22:

1.   Accessibility: make goods and services accessible to people with disabilities and promote the market of assistive devices.

2.   Participation: ensure that people with disabilities enjoy all benefits of EU citizenship; remove barriers to equal participation in public life and leisure activities; promote the provision of quality community-based services.

3.   Equality: combat discrimination based on disability and promote equal opportunities.

4.   Employment: raise significantly the share of persons with disabilities working in the open labour market.

5.  Education and training: promote inclusive education and lifelong learning for students and pupils with disabilities.

6.  Social protection: promote decent living conditions, combat poverty and social exclusion.

7.  Health: promote equal access to health services and related facilities.

8.  External action: promote the rights of people with disabilities in the EU enlargement and international development programs.

The new strategy will ensure access to EU funding, raise public awareness about disability and fulfill the EU’s commitment to the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities23, which has entered into force for the European Union on January 22nd 2011.

 

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1. Introduction

“My advice to other disabled people would be, concentrate on things your disability doesn’t prevent you doing well, and don’t regret the things it interferes with. Don’t be disabled in spirit, as well as physically1.”

 

Stephen Hawking


In the past ten years, there have been many quality steps for the melioration of lives of people with disabilities. Laws, movements, organizations promoting their rights are only some of the many ways society has found to make the problems of those people visible.

 

There are many examples of people with disabilities that have made important achievements and they have contributed to the development of our science, philosophy, sports, technology and education. These examples are not exceptions. But are not the rule, either.

 

All disabled people should have the opportunity to live full lives independently and autonomously, to have the same opportunities in employment and education and to make decisions for themselves. For every European state and its society, to enhance their participation in political and cultural life, to information and communication, to make accessibility on the built environment, transport and volunteering a priority, should be the main focus.

 

For all this to happen, disabled people need support and equality. Equality comes with inclusion. Inclusion comes with accessibility. And accessibility derives from infrastructure and education.

As technology advances and human rights make their way into people’s lives, what people with disability need is not only understanding but strategies that will finally lead to inclusion for all.

 

 

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2. Definition for “disability”2

 

 

Disability is a term which still does not have a specific definition. It is rather examined under different approaches, since it covers many situations that are not only medical, but also social and legal.

 

Below, we will attempt to examine all approaches in order to give an overall picture concerning the term:

 

Medical approach

According to the Cambridge Dictionary3

 

-disability is an illness, injury, or condition that makes it difficult for someone to do the things that other people do: a physical/learning disability.

 

Social Approach

 

According to the social model of disability, disability is seen not through the medical aspect, but through the social restrictions an impairment may cause, such as social exclusion, marginalization, negative attitudes and lack of infrastructures.

 

Legal Approach

 

From a legal point of view, a disability affecting a person’s will or judgment (such as mental illnesses) could possibly lead to the declaration, by virtue of court decision, of their legal incapacity and/or legal disqualification, further resulting in their inability to validly make decisions on their own, enter into binding agreements or write their own will.

 

From the above definitions, we can see that the term “disability” cannot be limited in the strict context of health or society even, but it is more of a situation with multiple factors. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities4 affirms that disability occurs5 when society fails to accommodate the needs of the individuals.

 

 

 

 

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Thus, we can say that:

 

Disability is the result of the combination of an impairment (physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional, developmental, or one consisting of more of the above) and the social restrictions (marginalization, limitation in participation of everyday activities, negative attitude towards the disabled and legal incapacity) that individuals face because of it.

 

 

 

3. Interesting Statistics

 

 

 

·         The World Health Organization estimated that in 2011 there were approximately one billion disabled people in the world, that is, 15% of the total population.

 

·         There are 80 million people in Europe with disabilities.

 

·         In 2002, 38% of the disabled people aged 16-34 across Europe have an earned income, compared to 64% of non-disabled people6.

 

·         According to a Eurostat research of 2001, in the European population aged 16

 

to 64 years, almost 15 % of women and 14 % of men report either a moderate or severe disability7.

 

·         Over one third of people older than 75 of people have a disability that restricts them to an extent8.

 

·         Only 5% of public websites and less than 3% of private websites in the EU are fully accessible according to W3C guidelines9.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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·         In the United Kingdom the poverty rate for disabled people in 200610was 23.1% whereas for non-disabled people 17.9%, without taking into account the extra expenses associated with being disabled. With these expenses the poverty rate for people with disabilities could reach up to 47.4%.

 

·         At the EU level, about 8% of persons aged 16 and over declare that they live with a severe disability (strongly limited)11.

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. European Legislation

 

 

 

·         Council Directive 2000/78/EC12of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation.

 

·         Council Decision 2010/48/EC13 of 26 November of 2009 regarding the conclusion, by the European Community, of the United Nations Convention on the rights of Persons with Disabilities.

 

 

 

More Acts, Directives and Decisions of the EU Institutions supporting the matter of disabled people can be found here.

 

The most recent is the own-initiative report14 on women with disabilities by Angelika Werthmann15, MEP from Austria, that was adopted by The Committee on Women’s

Rights and Gender Equality.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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More laws and acts of the EU and the European countries can be found at the following reports:

 

Annotated review of European legislation which makes a reference to disability16 Academic Network of European Disability experts (ANED)

 

June 2009

 

Disability and non-discrimination law in the European Union

 

An analysis of disability discrimination law within and beyond the employment field17 European Commission

 

Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities July 2009

 

Guide for the Disabled Citizen (Greek only)18

Ministry of Interior

 

March 2007

 

 

 

 

5. European Strategies

 

5.1  DISABILITY ACTION PLAN 2004-2010

 

Following the European Year of People with Disabilities, European Commission decided to take action and propose an action plan that will recognize and protect the rights of people with disabilities.

 

The DAP had three main objectives19:

 

 

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·         to implement fully the Directive 2000/78/EC on equal treatment in employment and occupation

 

·         to reinforce mainstreaming of disability issues in the relevant Community policies

·         to improve accessibility for all

 

5.2  COUNCIL OF EUROPE ACTION PLAN 2006-201520

 

In April 2006, European Council adopted an Action Plan that contains 15 key action lines:

 

3.1.  Action Line No.1: Participation in political and public life

3.2.  Action line No. 2: Participation in cultural life

3.3.  Action line No. 3: Information and communication

 

3.4.  Action line No. 4: Education

 

3.5.  Action line No. 5: Employment, vocational guidance and training

 

3.6.  Action line No. 6: The built environment

 

3.7.  Action line No. 7: Transport

 

3.8.  Action line No. 8: Community living

 

3.9.  Action line No. 9: Health care

 

3.10.  Action line No. 10: Rehabilitation

 

3.11.  Action line No. 11: Social protection

 

3.12.  Action line No. 12: Legal protection

3.13.  Action line No. 13: Protection against violence and abuse

 

3.14.  Action line No. 14: Research and development

 

3.15.  Action line No. 15: Awareness raising

 

It also draws attention to disabled people in need of a high level of support and the needs of women, girls, children, aged people and migrants.

 

 

 

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5.3 EUROPEAN DISABILITY STRATEGY 2010-202021

 

Following DAP, Europe adopted a new strategy on November 15th, 2010. The European Disability Strategy 2010-2020 promotes that persons with disabilities have the right to participate fully and equally in society and economy. Denial of equal opportunities is a breach of human rights.

Its objectives are pursued by actions in eight priority areas22:

 

1.   Accessibility: make goods and services accessible to people with disabilities and promote the market of assistive devices.

 

2.     Participation: ensure that people with disabilities enjoy all benefits of EU citizenship; remove barriers to equal participation in public life and leisure activities; promote the provision of quality community-based services.

 

3.      Equality: combat discrimination based on disability and promote equal opportunities.

 

4.   Employment: raise significantly the share of persons with disabilities working in the open labour market.

 

5.    Education and training: promote inclusive education and lifelong learning for students and pupils with disabilities.

 

6.   Social protection: promote decent living conditions, combat poverty and social exclusion.

7.  Health : promote equal access to health services and related facilities.

 

8.     External action: promote the rights of people with disabilities in the EU enlargement and international development programs.

The new strategy will ensure access to EU funding, raise public awareness about

 

disability and fulfill the EU’s commitment to the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities23, which has entered into force for the European Union on January 22nd 2011.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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6. Legislation per country

 

 

Austria

Federal Act for long-term care benefit 199324

Personal Assistance at the Workplace (PAW) 200425

The Austrian e-Government Act 2004 26

Federal Disability Equality Act 2006

 

Belgium

 

Social Rehabilitation Act “Loi de Réhabilitation Sociale” 196327 Anti-Discrimination Law “Loi du 10 mai 2007 adaptant le Code judiciaire à la législation tendant à lutter contre les discriminations et réprimant certains actes inspirés par le racisme ou la xénophobie“ 200728

 

Bulgaria

Law for Protection, Rehabilitation and Social Integration of Disabled 199529

 

Croatia

Consumer Protection Act (2012) 30

 

Cyprus

 

Law on Persons with Disabilities N.127(I) 2000, as amended by Law No. 72(I) of 2007. Germany

 

Law on Promoting the Equality of the Disabled

 

Czech Republic

The Czech Republic does not have a clear disability discrimination law31

 

 

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Denmark

 

Act on the Prohibition of Discrimination in the Labour market etc. (Consolidated Act No. 1349 of 16 December 200832

"Danish disability policy - Equal opportunities through dialogue" April 200233

 

Estonia

Act of 27 January 1999 on social benefits for disabled persons34

 

Social Benefits for Disabled Persons Act and State Pension Insurance Act (amendments) 201235

 

Memorandum on principles of cooperation signed by the government and representative organizations of persons with disabilities 201236

 

Finland

Social Welfare Act 710/198237

Disability Services Act 380/198738

Intellectual Disabilities 519/1977 39

 

France

 

2005-102 Disability Act40, “Loinumero 2005-102 du 11 février 2005 pour l'égalité des droitset des chances, la participation et la citoyenneté des personneshandicapées”

 

 

 

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Germany

 

Neuntes Buch des Sozialgesetzbuches - SGB IX (Book 9 of the Social Code)41 Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz – BGG (Equal Opportunities for Disabled People Act)42

 

Greece

 

Law n. 3304/2005 Implementation of the Principle of equal treatment regardless of racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation.

 

Hungary

 

Act XXVI of 1998 on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Guaranteeing of their Equal Opportunities.

 

Act XXIII of 2007 amending Act XXVI of 1998 on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Guaranteeing of their Equal Opportunities.

 

Ireland

 

Disability Act 2000

 

Italy

 

Law 104/1992

 

Law no. 68 Regulations on the right to employment for persons with disabilities, 1999

 

Legislative Decree no. 216, 2003 (Implementing the European Directive 2000/78/EC) Legge 4/2004 - Disposizioni per favorire l'accesso dei soggetti disabili agli strumenti informatici43

 

Law no. 67 Provisions for judicial protection of persons with disabilities, victims of discrimination 2006

 

Liechtenstein

Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (AEPD) 44

 

 

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By-law (Verordnung)45

 

Lithuania

Law on Disabled Social Integration 2005 46

The National Program for Social Integration of People with Disabilities 2003-201247

 

Luxembourg

 

Law of 12 September 2003 on disabled persons

 

Malta

 

Persons with disability (employment) Act 1969

 

Equal opportunities (Persons with Disability) Act 2000

 

Netherlands

Equal Treatment of Disabled and Chronically Ill People 200348

 

Norway

Anti-Discrimination and Accessibility Act 200949

 

Poland

Charter of Rights for Persons with Disabilities 199750

 

Act on Vocational and Social Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities 1997 51

 

Portugal

 

Resolution of the Council of Ministers Concerning the Accessibility of Public Administration Web Sites for Citizens with Special Needs 199952

Law 46/200653

 

 

 

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2006 Accessibility Law (Decree-Law 163/2006 of 8 August) 54

 

Romania

 

Law n. 448/2006 with regard to the protection and promotion of handicapped person55

 

Slovakia

Employment Service Act (5/2004) 56

Health Insurance Act (580/2004)57

Equal Treatment Act (365/2004) 58

 

Slovenia

 

Employment and Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities Act in 200459 The Implementation of Equal Treatment Act (2004)60

Employment Relationships Act (2002)61

 

Spain

 

1982 Social Integration for Disabled People Act (Law 13/1982)

2003 Non Discrimination Act (Law 51/2003)62

2007 Equal Opportunities Act (Law 49/2007)

 

Royal Decree on Non Discrimination in State services (Decree 366/2007) Law 56/2007 on measures to promote Information Society63

Real Decreto 1494/2007 64

Ley 34/2002 Servicios de la Sociedad de la Informacion y de Comercio Electronico65

 

Sweden

Act concerning Support and Service for Persons with Certain Functional Impairments (LSS) 199466

 

Swedish National Guidelines for Public Sector Websites 200667 The Discrimination Act 200968

 

Switzerland

Ordonnace sur l'élimination des inégalités frappant les personnes handicapées69

 

United Kingdom

Discrimination Disability Act 199570

Equality Act 2010

 

 

 

Conclusions

 

 

From the legislation list above the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its optional Protocol was omitted71. The EU ratified the UNCPRD in 2010, despite the fact that up until then almost half of its member-states had not ratified the Convention. The last member-state to ratify the UNCPRD was Norway in June 6th 2013, whereas Finland and Netherlands are the only member-states today that have not yet ratified it.

 

Moreover, the majority of the countries have provided compensation to their disabled citizens. France’s legislation giving a definition to the term “disability” is relatively new (2005). Czech Republic has legislation on employment which covers the issue of discrimination, in theory, but does not have a specific act or law that will protect, compensate or ease its citizens with disabilities.

 

Following a closer observation of the aforementioned legislation, it is interesting to stress out a) that the majority of the laws in the list have entered into force during the last decade and b) the increasing number of countries taking into consideration internet and information accessibility. Fifteen member-states, Austria,

 

 

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Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal Romania, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom as well as Norway and Switzerland have adopted legislation in order to set the guidelines for creating and sustaining websites, to which all disabled people will have access.

 

Civil society has taken action during the past years, spreading the message of equality, accessibility and inclusion. Of course, with the Internet reaching globally billions of people, it was deemed by the governments deemed necessary to make all this information easily accessible to everyone. It is an intriguing thought, though, that through Internet, civil society had another means to pressure for results on the issue of discrimination against disability.

 

 

 

7. Good practices

 

 

The term “good practice” can be unexpectedly broad. For this, in this chapter the good practices included were mostly practices focusing on accessibility issues of the disabled on the aspects of education, work, services and mobility (parks/opens spaces, building/closed spaces, transport, events, and tourism).

 

 

6.1.1 Criteria

 

 

To short out the countless practices in Europe that help one way or another the disabled, and make the present research more focused and effective, the following criteria were used:

 

a.      The good practice should have good results. A positive impact that makes a difference.

 

b.      The good practice should enhance the disabled persons’ accessibility.

 

c.       The good practice should be sustainable over-time.

 

d.      The good practice should be applied to similar situations in other regions.

 

e.      The good practice should, if applied widely, bring meaningful and lasting change in inequality and create opportunities.

 

*The good practice does not have to be innovative.

 

6.2.1 The most accessible building, Denmark72

 

Accessibility can take many forms. One of the most popular, simple and obvious is accessibility in buildings.

 

The House of Organizations of Persons with Disabilities is the central office of Danish Disability Umbrella Organization (DPOD) and has been designed and built since 2006. In the summer of 2013, it was given to use and it is considered one of the most accessible buildings in the world.

 

The process of building a larger place for the offices of DPOD started in 2006. It opened on the 12th of December of 2012, at 12 o’clock.

 

The building was designed to be fully accessible to the disabled and to have low energy consumption.

 

According to the President of the DPOD, Stig Langvad, the key was to include in the process disabled people with knowledge and experience in accessibility.

 

 

6.2.3 Seatrac, Greece73

 

Seatrac is a sun-powered device that allows people who are paralyzed from the waist down or who have limited movement to enter the sea without help. The main idea behind this device was to limit the difficulties of a simple task such as swimming.

 

Created in 2008 by a Greek team of mechanics at “Mechanics Laboratory of the Department of Mechanical Engineering &Aeronautics”, from the University of Patras. Seatrac does not alter the beaches in which it is installed, leaving the place intact after the summer period. Up until now, many beaches in Greece are using this device giving people with kinetic difficulties the chance to swim whenever they want autonomously.

Seatrac won the First Prize of the 2nd Applied Research & Innovation Competition of

“Greek Innovates!” in September 17th, 2013.

 

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6.2.4 The Egmont Højskolen, Denmark74

 

Egmont Højskolen School was founded in 1956 by the National Association of the

 

Disabled in Denmark.

 

At the beginning it was a school only for students with mobility impairments with the real integration of people with disabilities in the educational system as its main goal. Today, the school is known and unique because of its full accessibility, which has been its priority from the start. The school has a number of double and single rooms, especially designed to suit the needs of people with disabilities, modern well-equipped class rooms, excellent catering facilities, home helpers service, a lecture hall, a gym etc. According to DPOD, today, only half the students are disabled. Most of the non-disabled students are hired by the disabled to assist them in their daily tasks. Lectures are, to a large extent, differentiated to meet the individual student’s needs and abilities.

 

The idea of such a school (Højskolenin English means “folk high school”) was based on the principles and ideas of the Danish pastor, poet, historian, teacher and philosopher, N.F.S. Grundtvig that envisioned a different kind of school based on dialogue between teachers and students. Grundtvig influenced greatly the Danish society and national consciousness.

 

 

6.2.5 Dialogue in the Dark, Germany75

 

“Dialogue in the Dark” is a unique experience for people without eyesight-problems in an attempt to change the stereotypes of being different by taking people out of their familiar environment and introducing them into a world without picture.

 

The visitors of this event take a tour in special facilities in total dark, having as their guides blind people or people with lessened eyesight. The tour lasts for 80 minutes and the only means the visitors have to understand their environment are the rest of their senses. And of course, their blind guides.

 

 

Founder of the concept “Dialogue in the Dark” is Andreas Heinecke76 who, years ago, had to organize a rehabilitation program for a blind colleague. After that experience he thought it would be a great opportunity to create a dialogue in which

the roles would be reverse and thus, the event was launched in 1988, in Frankfurt.

 

Since then, the event has reached 30 countries, 130 cities and 7 million visitors, often, with life changing results. Thousands of blind guides have found employment during the events.

 

 

6.2.6 Belfast City Council as Best Employer, Ireland77

 

Belfast City Council won the Disability Best Practice Employer Award in September 2012, after a thorough examination of case studies in Ireland, organized by Employers For Disability NI (EFDNI).

 

The criteria the candidate had to meet in fullest in order to win were:

 

1.  Strategic direction and top level commitment

2.  Supporting employees with disabilities

 

3.  Raising awareness of disability

 

4.  Accessibility

 

5.  Links with disability organizations

 

Belfast City Council encouraged applications from people with disabilities for all kinds of employment, reviewed and monitored the experiences and views of all applicants and employees, took into consideration the sick days every employee had to leave and adjusted their work program accordingly, made adjustments so that the all locations would be easily accessible to all and installed large training and disability screens wherever frontline employees didn’t have access to a computer.

 

Finally, recognizing and supporting the contribution people with disability make in their line of work is a great motivation for them, setting a great example for employers.

 

 

6.2.7 Access City Award 2013 to Berlin, Germany78

 

The Access City Award is given every year for the past three years to the most accessible cities in Europe.

 

The first Award went to Avila, Spain and the second to Salzburg, Austria. The third one of 2013 went to Berlin.

 

The criteria with which the applicants are evaluated are the following:

 

1.  Scope of the actions

2.  Ownership, level of commitment

 

3.  Impact

4.  Quality and sustainability of results

 

5.  Involvement of people with disabilities and relevant partners

Every year, there are many candidate cities competing for the tiltle of the most

 

accessible in Europe. Even if they do not win, the process of trying to adjust and comply to their legislative and European criteria in order to be part of the contest is a great opportunity for the cities to try and lift the physical and psychological barriers of inclusion for their disabled citizens.

 

This year the two other finalists were Nantes in France and Stockholm in Sweden and Gdynia in Poland had a special mention for transport and related infrastructure. Bilbao in Spain had a special mention for information, communication and ICT. Pamplona in Spain had a special mention for built environment and public spaces and Tallaght in Ireland has a special mention for accessible services and facilities.

 

 

6.2.8 Disability Discrimination Act (DDA), United Kingdom79

 

Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) is a civil rights law in the United Kingdom that imposes obligations to employers not to discriminate against people in respect with disabilities they might have when employment is concerned.

 

Moreover, the third part of the DDA that entered into force in 1999, places obligations to services providers in order to make adjustments that will promote the accessibility where goods, facilities, services and premises are concerned.

 

The characteristic that makes this law interesting is that it mentions specifically websites. A Code of Practice80 was published in 27th May, 2002 although, unfortunately, there are nowhere in the law guidelines to make the internet service providers comply with it.81

 

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8.  Other researches on good practices for the disabled

 

Showcasing disability, Best Practice82

 

Employers for Disability NI (EFDNI) Ireland, September 2012

 

A report promoting disability best practice in Northern Ireland and dominating, a Disability Best Practice Award to local employers.

 

 

 

Disability in the Working Place: Company Practices83

 

International Labour Organization Geneva, 2010

 

A  report  published  by  the  Bureau  for  Employers’  Activities  and  Skills  and

 

Employability Department of ILO that describes the work of 25 companies on the issue of disability (Accor, Carrefour, Cisco, Delta Holding, Dow, Ernst & Young, Fast Retailing, Grundfos, Honda Motor, IBM, Kyobo Life Insurance, Manpower, Marks & Spencer, Microsoft, MphasiS, Nokia, Samsung, Electro, Mechanics, Sodexo, Sony,

 

Telefónica,Telenor, Telstra, Walgreens, Westpac, Wipro).

 

 

 

Best Practices for Including Persons with Disabilities in all aspects of Development Efforts 84

 

United Nations April 2011

 

The report provides information on best practices at international, regional, subregional and national levels for including persons with disabilities in all aspects of development efforts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The implementation of EU social inclusion and social protection strategies in European countries with reference to equality for disables people85

 

Academic Network of European Disability Experts (ANED) May 2009

 

The report is based on the information submitted in national reports for the following countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

 

 

 

Inclusive Education & Disability Good Practices from around Europe86

 

incluD-ed: European Network on Inclusive Education & Disability Spain, 2012

 

The report aims to present successful practices that have been implemented in several European cities by and for people on the field of inclusive education.

 

 

 

Guide of best practices for enhancing employment87 Ministry of Labor and Social Insurance of Cyprus

 

Cyprus, May 2012

 

A report on good practices from the public sector of UK, Ireland, Spain, Denmark and Germany.

 

 

 

Towards Inclusive Education.

Examples of Good practices of Inclusive education88

 

 

 

NGO CIVIS PLUS

 

WORKING PACKAGE 4

 

 

Inclusion Europe

 

Belgium, 2007

 

The report was published with the support of the European Commission. It refers on good practices from European countries on inclusive education at the following schools:

 

·         Cleves Primary School, United Kingdom

·         Sophie-Scholl-School in Gießen, Germany

 

·         Public School Padre Jerónimo, Spain

·         Practice Centre of Pedagogical Training School, Austria

·         Rehabilitation Foundation and the Educational Assistance Resource Center

 

“Speranta”, Romania

·         Association “Inclusion”, Brcko District, Bosnia and Herzegovina

 

 

 

Guide of Good practices for disabled people for communication professionals89

 

Junta de Andalucia.Consejeria de Salud y Bienestar Social Spain, 2013

 

A report that aims to promote the principles of no discrimination, equality in opportunities and universal accessibility of the disabled in the media and the information systems.

 

10 BEST PRACTICES in employment support for people with disabilities90

 

European Association of Service providers for Persons with Disabilities (EASPD) September, 2013

 

EASPD aimed at promoting the implementation of Article 27 of the UN CRPD. For this, an “EASPD Employment For All Award” was organized and in its report ten practices were awarded as best practices.

 

    

        

 

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